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    20 April 2024, Volume 5 Issue 2
    Special Topic
    Construction and prospects of tuberculosis prevention and control service system in China during the new era
    Chen Wei, Sun Huijuan, Zhao Yanlin
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  95-100.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.2024025
    Abstract ( 63 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (1101KB) ( 44 )   Save
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    The service system of tuberculosis prevention and control in China has been continuously adjusted and transformed with the changes in epidemic levels and the development of the economy and society. Since 2011, China has gradually implemented the new tuberculosis prevention and control service system. In the new era, how to better improve and perfect the tuberculosis prevention and control service system is a major issue facing tuberculosis prevention and control work. The authors systematically summarized the evolution of China’s tuberculosis prevention and control service system; described the current operation status of the tuberculosis prevention and control service system; analyzed the existing problems and challenges; and put forward the working opinions and suggestions on the construction of the tuberculosis prevention and control service system in the future.

    Original Articles
    Application of LungPoint navigation combined with indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in lymph node sampling of stage Ⅰa non-small cell lung cancer
    Zhu Jiankun, Liu Dawei, Li Xiaofeng, Meng Qian
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  101-105.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.2024029
    Abstract ( 29 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (815KB) ( 12 )   Save
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    Objective: To find a method to accurately locate sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in patients with stage Ⅰa non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to verify the rationality of SLN as a lymph node sample. Methods: A prospective study was conducted to include 50 patients with stage Ⅰa NSCLC in the Thoracic Surgery Department of Shandong Provincial Public Health Clinical Center from January 2021 to December 2023 according to the enrollment criteria. The tracer indocyanine green was injected around the tumor by LungPoint navigation tracheoscopy before surgery, and SLN localization was completed by fluorescence thoracoscopic imaging. The pathological examination of regional lymph nodes including SLN was performed, and the recognition rate, accuracy rate and false negative rate of SLN were used to verify the rationality of the method as a lymph node sampling sample. Results: Among the 50 patients, SLN was detected in 41 cases, with a recognition rate of 82.0% (41/50), of which 3 patients were detected with lymph node metastasis (SLN positive), a total of 9 lymph nodes, and 1 patient also detected 2 positive non-sentinel lymph nodes (N-SLN). In 9 patients, no SLN was detected, 54 lymph nodes were dissected, and no metastatic lymph nodes were found, so the accuracy rate of SLN was 100.0% (41/41) and the false negative rate was 0 (0/3). Conclusion: With the help of LungPoint tracheoscopy to inject the tracer indocyanine green around the tumor, the SLN technology explored by fluorescence thoracoscopic imaging has a high predictability of regional lymph node metastasis, which is expected to be the basis for guiding the systematic lymph node sampling of stage Ⅰa NSCLC.

    Meta-analysis of the impact of low-dose CT screening on population lung cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality
    Zi Xiaohui, Wu Peng, Zheng Sufei, Sun Nan, He Jie
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  106-112.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.2024027
    Abstract ( 52 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1791KB) ( 15 )   Save
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    Objective: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose computed tomography screening (LDCT) in reducing lung cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality among screened populations. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in databases such as PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform for prospective studies on LDCT lung cancer screening, published domestically and internationally from January 2000 to August 2023. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed on studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The primary outcome was lung cancer-specific mortality, while secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality and the number need to be screened (NNBS) to prevent one lung cancer death or death from all causes. Meta-analysis was conducted using R software version 4.3.1. Results: Nine studies with a prospective design were included, covering 123880 individuals screened, aged 40-75 years. The median follow-up time of the studies ranged from 3.6 to 13.0 years. Meta-analysis results showed that compared to non-LDCT screening groups, LDCT screening reduced lung cancer-specific mortality by 16% (RR=0.84, 95%CI: 0.78-0.91, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the all-cause mortality (RR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.84-1.03, P=0.151). Subgroup analysis indicated that the specific subcategories of the non-LDCT screening group (control group) were related to the reduction in lung cancer mortality. Meta-regression results showed that the median follow-up time was related to the reduction in all-cause mortality. To prevent one death caused by lung cancer through LDCT screening, 139 people were estimated to be screened in the non-imaging prevention/general population; to prevent one death caused by all-cause, 81 people were estimated to be screened. Conclusion: LDCT screening significantly reduces lung cancer-specific mortality in the 40-75 age group, underlining its important public health significance for specific age groups and risk populations.

    Metagenomic next-generation sequencing assisted in the diagnosis of psittacosis: a case report and literature review
    Yuan Yonglong, Li Huimei, Ma Dedong
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  113-119.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.2024016
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    Objective: To investigate the clinical features, epidemiological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of psittacosis. Methods: A case of Chlamydia psittaci pneumonia admitted to the Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine of Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital was retrospectively reviewed. The diagnosis and treatment was analyzed. Using “Psittacosis” as search terms, relevant literature was searched from the PubMed, Wanfang, WIP, CNKI databases and then analyzed. Results: The patient was 52-year-old, male, had a history of hypertension, and admitted to the hospital due to “fever and cough for 20 days”. He had been treated with moxifloxacin and cefoperazone-sulbactam before admission, but the condition did not improve. Psittacosis pneumonia was confirmed by detecting Chlamydia psittaci in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using metagenomic next-generation sequencing after that the patient was transferred to our department. The patient improved after treatment with levofloxacin combined with minocycline and was discharged from the hospital. Through literature review, it was found that psittacosis is a zoonotic disease that can affect multiple systems in the body, with the respiratory system being affected most commonly. This disease can be transmitted between humans. Metagenomic high-throughput sequencing technology has more advantages than traditional detection methods such as serology, pathogen isolation and culture, and polymerase chain reaction. Tetracycline drugs are the preferred treatment with a duration of 2-3 weeks. The prognosis of this disease is generally good, with an overall mortality rate of approximately 1%. Conclusion: Psittacosis is a zoonotic disease that requires early treatment. Because of lack of specificity of the clinical characteristics and examination results, the rates of misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis are high. Metagenomic high-throughput sequencing technology has advantages in diagnosing this disease. Tetracycline drugs are the preferred treatment with good prognosis in general.

    Construction of a new system of school tuberculosis prevention and control strategy using Delphi evaluation method
    Lin Ying, Lei Yu, Zhong Miner, Du Yuhua
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  120-127.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.2024035
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    Objective: To construct a new system of school tuberculosis prevention and control strategy by using Delphi evaluation method. Methods: Based on the national school tuberculosis prevention and control guidelines, as well as relevant literature on school tuberculosis prevention and control strategies in Wanfang Data, China Network Knowledge Infrastructure and other databases, and in combination with the current situation of tuberculosis prevalence in schools in Guangzhou, the implementation of preventive and control measures in schools, and the follow-up visits of cases and close contacts, the Guangzhou Institute of Tuberculosis Prevention and Treatment formulated a preliminary framework of school tuberculosis prevention and control strategy system, which involves 58 strategies in four major categories. Twenty-one experts across the country were organized to conduct two rounds of consultation on strategies. A new system of school tuberculosis prevention and control strategies and the weighting of the strategies was established based on the importance and feasibility of the selected strategies by using indicators such as expert positive index, expert authority coefficient (Cr);including degree of familiarity (Cs) and judgment basis (Ca), degree of concentration of experts’ opinions (including frequency range of full importance scores, frequency range of full feasibility scores, mean of composite scores and coefficient of variation (CV), degree of coordination of experts’ opinions (Kendall’s coordination coefficient), and coefficient of weighting of the strategies, etc. Results: The expert positivity index in both rounds of consultation was 100.0% (21/21), and the Cs, Ca, Cr, frequency range of full importance scores, frequency range of full feasibility scores, mean of composite scores and CV ranges in the first round of expert consultation were 0.83±0.11, 0.95±0.07, 0.90±0.07, 5.36% to 98.28%, 1.79% to 96.85%, 4.36±0.75, 0.05 to 0.20, respectively, and the Kendall coordination coefficients of the strategies was 0.343 (χ2=484.79, P=0.000); the results of the second round of expert consultation were 0.85±0.09, 0.94±0.08, 0.90±0.07, 8.62% to 97.83%, 6.52% to 95.53%, 4.51±0.60, 0.02 to 0.16, and 0.433 (χ2=315.24, P=0.000), respectively. Experts’ opinions were highly concentrated, and finally a new school tuberculosis prevention and control strategy system including 3 primary strategies, 7 secondary strategies and 25 tertiary strategies was established, as well as the weight of each strategy. Conclusion: The Delphi evaluation method was used to construct a new school tuberculosis prevention and control strategy system, and a new school tuberculosis prevention and control strategy suitable for the region was initially established, providing a scientific reference for promoting the precise prevention and control of schools tuberculosis.

    Exploring the causes of recurrence and genetic characteristics of tuberculosis strains in Beijing based on genotypic analysis
    Zhang Jie, Ding Beichuan, Ren Yixuan, Tian Lili, Yi Junli, Pang Mengdi, Yang Xinyu
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  128-134.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.2024018
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    Objective: To investigate the causes of recurrence in tuberculosis patients in Beijing and the genetic characteristics of their strains, aiming to provide a scientific basis for the effective prevention and treatment of recurrent tuberculosis patients. Methods: The RD105 gene deletion method and 15-locus variable number tandem repeat genotyping experiment (VNTR) were used to compare the genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) of the initial and recurrent episodes in pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Beijing from January 2017 to December 2019, to elucidate the etiology of recurrent tuberculosis. The final isolates from recurrent patients were selected to evaluate the discriminatory ability of the genotyping technology on MTB strains of Beijing. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis was conducted to investigate the genetic characteristics of MTB prevalent in recurrent patients, providing insights into the evolutionary relationships within the strains associated with recurrent tuberculosis cases in Beijing. Results: The proportion of endogenous reactivation among recurrent patients was 65.4% (51/78), while the proportion of exogenous reinfection was 34.6% (27/78). Among the 78 MTB isolates obtained from recurrent patients, 71 were Beijing genotype, and 7 were non-Beijing genotype. 78 strains exhibited 68 distinct genotypes. Within 2 clonal complex clusters, 13 isolates formed 4 clusters, while among 24 unique strains, 2 isolates formed 1 cluster, resulting in a clustering rate of 12.8%. The hunter-gaston discrimination index for all MTB strains across the 15 VNTR loci was 0.994. Conclusion: The primary cause of recurrent tuberculosis in Beijing was endogenous reactivation, with a relatively low clustering rate. The predominant strain was Beijing genotype, exhibiting a high degree of genetic diversity.

    Multidimensional differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and pulmonary sarcoidosis accompanied by granulomatous inflammation of pulmonary tissue
    Sha Min, Zhu Weidong, Jin Yifan, Lyu Leilei, Chen Cheng
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  135-142.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.2024026
    Abstract ( 31 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (2376KB) ( 8 )   Save
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    Objective: To analyze the clinical features of pulmonary tuberculosis and pulmonary sarcoidosis complicated with granulomatous inflammation of pulmonary tissue, in order to build a differential diagnostic model of the two groups. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in 121 patients with pulmonary granulomatosis diagnosed by bronchoscopic lung tissue biopsy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from January 2016 to December 2022. Among them, there were 34 cases of pulmonary sarcoidosis and 87 cases of tuberculosis. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, chest CT imaging data, histopathology, bronchoscopic data were collected, and the independent predictors of the two groups were screened out by logistic regression analysis. Finally, established the disease diagnosis model, and evaluated the differential diagnosis efficiency of the model. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that male (OR=5.51, 95%CI: 1.67-18.17), nodule diameter ranged from 1 cm to 3 cm (OR=5.82, 95%CI: 1.47-23.08), segmental bronchial stenosis (OR=6.43, 95%CI: 1.59-25.92), bilateral lung involvement (OR=0.03, 95%CI: 0.00-0.16) were independent predictors of tuberculosis and pulmonary sarcoidosis. Accordingly, the disease diagnosis model was established with the AUC of 0.884 (95%CI: 0.819-0.949). The specificity was 79.4%, and the sensitivity was 86.2%. Conclusion: There are differences in patient gender, lung lesion size, morphology, and other aspects between pulmonary tuberculosis and pulmonary sarcoidosis with granulomatous inflammation of lung tissue. The diagnostic model can be better used for the differential diagnosis of the two groups.

    Clinical value of IFIT3 and PCT in prognosis evaluation of elderly patients with severe tuberculosis
    Wei Yunxia, Wang Xin, Long Xuejuan, Shao Lijiao, Yan Lijing, Yu Di, Li Ning
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  143-147.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.2024030
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    Objective: To investigate the value of IFIT3 (interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3,IFIT3) and procalcitonin (PCT) in the prognosis of elderly patients with severe pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Methods: In this prospective study, 82 elderly patients with severe PTB in the ICU of Hebei Chest Hospital from April 2022 to March 2023 were selected as study objects, and divided into survival group (42 cases) and death group (40 cases) according to the outcomes of the patients after they admitted to the ICU for 28 days. Clinical data of these two groups of patients were collected, and serum IFIT3 and PCT contents were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The predictive value of IFIT3 and PCT on death was then analyzed by plotting receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, while the prognosis at 28 days after admission to ICU was used as the reference standard. Results: The acute physiology and chronic health status assessment system Ⅱ (APACHEⅡ) score, serum IFIT3 and PCT level of the elderly patients with severe PTB in the death group were 25.68±8.12, 21.00 (13.00, 48.00) pg/ml and 3.21 (0.96, 5.78) ng/ml, respectively, higher than those in the survival group (21.17±8.57, 11.00 (5.75, 22.75) pg/ml and 0.41 (0.15, 1.04) ng/ml). The differences were statistically significant (t=-2.373, P=0.018;Z=-2.920, P=0.003;Z=2.028, P=0.001). The area under ROC curve (AUC) of IFIT3 and PCT were 0.687 (95%CI:0.572-0.803) and 0.832 (95%CI:0.741-0.922) respectively for predicting death. When the optimal threshold value of IFIT3 was 12.50 pg/ml, the sensitivity and specificity of predicting death were 77.5% and 59.5%. When the optimal threshold of serum PCT was 1.44 ng/ml, the sensitivity and specificity of predicting death were 72.5% and 83.3%. AUC of combing IFIT3 with PCT in predicting death was 0.850 (95%CI: 0.767-0.933), the sensitivity and specificity were 75.0% and 83.3%, and the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 81.1% and 75.6%. Conclusion: IFIT3 combined with PCT test has a certain clinical value in the prognosis assessment of elderly patients with severe PTB in ICU.

    Meta-analysis of conventional hypoglycemic and anti-tuberculosis therapy combined with thymosin α1 in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with diabetes
    Li Dan, Zhang Yuhua, Chen Shengyu
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  148-157.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.2024005
    Abstract ( 56 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (5471KB) ( 8 )   Save
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    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of conventional hypoglycemic and anti-tuberculosis therapy combined with thymosin α1 in pulmonary tuberculosis patients complicated with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Relevant literature was searched for in both Chinese and English from PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang Database, etc. from January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2022, with Chinese search terms including thymosin α1, Tα1, tuberculosis, diabetes, and the English search terms including Thymosin alpha 1, Tα1, Tuberculosis, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes. he results of randomized controlled trial of pulmonary tuberculosis patients complicated with diabetes were collected, all the patients were treated with conventional hypoglycemic and anti-tuberculosis therapy combined with thymosin α1. Results: A total of 1117 references were retrieved, and 13 were ultimately included in the study; the 685 included patients were divided into the observation group (n=335, combined with thymosin α1) and the control group (n=350, conventional hypoglycemic and anti-tuberculosis treatment). Meta analysis showed that, of the observation group, the treatment efficacy rate (OR (95%CI)=4.08 (2.77-6.02)), sputum negative conversion rate (OR (95%CI)=4.61 (3.21-6.63)), and lesion absorption rate (OR (95%CI)=5.06 (3.19-8.04)) were significantly better than those of the control group; the CD4+T cell levels after treatment (standardized mean difference (SMD)=2.07, 95%CI: 1.37-2.77, P<0.001) and CD3+T cell levels (SMD (95%CI)=2.33 (0.98-3.67), P=0.001) were significantly better than those in the control group; after treatment, the CD8+T cell level was significantly lower than that in the control group (SMD (95%CI)=-2.21 (-2.95--1.48), P<0.001), and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was significantly increased (SMD (95%CI)=1.25 (0.73-1.77), P<0.001). Conclusion: Conventional hypoglycemic and anti-tuberculosis combination with thymosin α1 treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis patients complicated with diabetes could improve the treatment efficiency, focus absorption rate and sputum negative conversion rate; with the treatment, the patient’s CD4+, CD3+T cell levels, and CD4+/CD8+ratio have all increased.

    Analysis of the epidemic characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in Shijingshan District, Beijing from 2012 to 2022
    Zhang Yajing, Ren Lijun, Wang Mingliang, Jiang Ying, Zhou Lin, Tang Guiqin
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  158-163.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.2024023
    Abstract ( 34 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (887KB) ( 15 )   Save
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    Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in Shijingshan District of Beijing from 2012 to 2022, and provide scientific basis for better tuberculosis prevention and control in the future. Methods: The relevant data of tuberculosis patients in Shijingshan District from 2012 to 2022, including gender, age, occupation, etiology, current address, etc., were collected through the Tuberculosis Information Management System, a subsystem of the China Disease Prevention and Control Information System, and were analyzed by descriptive epidemiological methods. Results: A total of 1954 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were reported in Shijingshan District from 2012 to 2022, with an annual reported incidence rate of 28.60/100000. The reported incidence rate of pulmonary tuberculosis decreased from 35.70/100000 (231 cases) in 2012 to 21.85/100000 (123 cases) in 2022, showing a general downward trend ($χ^{2}_{趋势}=40.035$, P<0.001). Among the reported pulmonary tuberculosis patients, the sex ratio of male and female was 1.93∶1 (1288∶666). The reported incidence rate of male (37.44/100000, 1288/3440000) was significantly higher than that of women (19.63/100000, 666/3392000)(χ2=189.416, P<0.001). The reported incidence rates of pulmonary tuberculosis of the three age groups of 0-14 years old, 15-64 years old, ≥65 years old and above were 2.76/100000 (19/688973), 25.69/100000 (1372/5341527) and 69.21/100000 (563/813409), respectively. The incidence rate in the age group of 65 years and above was significantly higher than those in the age groups of 0-14 years and 15-64 years (χ2=647.183, P<0.001). The top 5 occupational distribution groups were retirees (33.88%, 662/1954), household and unemployed (21.19%, 414/1954), cadres and staff (9.88%, 193/1954), workers (8.55%, 167/1954), and students and teachers (6.14%, 120/1954). The number of tuberculosis cases reported in the second quarter was the largest (26.36%, 515/1954), followed by the fourth quarter (25.03%, 489/1954), and the lowest number was in the first quarter (23.80%, 465/1954). Conclusion: From 2012 to 2022, the reported incidence rate of pulmonary tuberculosis in Shijingshan District showed a general downward trend. People aged 65 and above are the key population for tuberculosis prevention and control in Shijingshan District. Effective measures should be taken to make the detection and treatment for the elderly patients as soon as possible.

    Analysis of the epidemic characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in Qingdao from 2008 to 2022
    Sun Haiyan, Dai Xiaoqi, Song Song, Chen Meng, Xu Honghong, Wang Zhongdong, Zhang Huaqiang
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  164-167.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.2024015
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    Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in Qingdao from 2008 to 2022. Methods: A total of 38507 pulmonary tuberculosis patients registered in Qingdao from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2022 were collected through the “Disease Surveillance Information System”,and then the epidemic characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis were analyzed. Results: From 2008 to 2022, 38507 cases of pulmonary were totally reported in Qingdao. The average reported incidence rate was 27.63/100000, with an average annual decline rate of 3%. The highest incidence rate was reported in 2008 (33.66/100000), and the lowest incidence rate was reported in 2022 (20.78/100000). (1) Time distribution: the number of reported cases showed a clear temporal pattern from 2008 to 2019, with a higher number of reported cases from March to August each year, accounting for 55.16% (17539/31798); November and January to February were the lowest reported incidence periods, accounting for 20.46% (6505/31798). (2) Regional distribution: from 2008 to 2022, the average reported incidence rate of active pulmonary tuberculosis was the highest in Licang District (50.09/105, 3622 cases), and the lowest was in Shinan District (20.70/100000, 1719 cases). (3) Population distribution: the reported incidence rate of male was 52.97/100000 (26959 cases), which was higher than that of female (13.05/100000, 11548 cases); the age group of 20-29 years old had the highest proportion of patients (25.81%, 9940/38507), and the proportion of people who work as “farmers” was the highest (40.59%, 15631/38507). Conclusion: The reported incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in Qingdao showed a decreasing trend from 2008 to 2022. Prevention and control in key areas and populations should be further strengthened.

    Original Articles: Teaching
    Evaluation the application of information-based hybrid teaching model in thoracic imaging diagnosis education
    Wu Ning, Tang Ke, Sun Weirong
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  168-171.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.20230129
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    Objective: To explore the teaching effect of clinical medical undergraduates in chest imaging diagnosis with the information-based mixed teaching mode. Methods: A total of 62 medical imaging undergraduates undergoing rotation training in the Department of Radiology of the Eighth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital from September 2018 to September 2022 were selected and divided into the Observation Group (with information-based mixed teaching model) and the control group (with traditional teaching model). The improvement of self-regulated learning ability of the two groups was evaluated by questionnaires, and the innovation ability was evaluated using scientific research design and simulated report, the problem-solving ability was assessed through film review and case analysis. A total of 62 questionnaires were distributed and 62 valid questionnaires were recovered. Results: The self-regulated learning ability scores of the two groups were (4.52±0.57) and (3.35±0.75), respectively, the difference was statistically significant (t=6.836, P<0.001); the scores of innovation ability were (3.94±0.73) and (2.84±1.01), respectively, with significant difference (t=4.928, P<0.001); and the scores of problem solving ability were (76.90±3.71) and (68.81±4.57), respectively, the difference was also statistically significant (t=7.651, P<0.001). Conclusion: The information-based hybrid teaching mode can improve the ability of self-directed learning, innovation, and problem-solving in the diagnosis of chest imaging for clinical medical undergraduate students.

    Review Articles
    Progress in the expression of long-stranded noncoding RNA and their role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Yan Yanfeng, Qi Wenxia, Cui Yonghui, Wei Caihong
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  172-178.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.20240040
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    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a kind of preventable and treatable chronic lung disease characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a class of transcription products with long nucleotide chains that exert a variety of biological effects by regulating the expression of related molecules in various forms. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that lncRNA can be involved in the pathological response of COPD by regulating various molecular biological processes such as inflammatory response, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and have gradually become an important target for the diagnosis and treatment of COPD. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of lncRNA expression in COPD, oxidative stress, human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells apoptosis, and their role in pathological mechanisms, with the aim of providing new ideas and directions for the diagnosis and efficacy assessment of COPD.

    Research progress on immune cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated with cardiovascular disease
    Peng Maocuo, Xie Jungang
    Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2024, 5(2):  179-185.  doi:10.19983/j.issn.2096-8493.20230118
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    In addition to impaired lung structure and function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has the release of local inflammatory mediators into circulation system which would induce a systemic inflammatory response. The systemic inflammatory response can further cause or exacerbate extra-pulmonary comorbidities of COPD, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), osteoporosis, anxiety and depression, and infections, with CVD being particularly commonly observed in clinical practice. Patients with COPD are at an increased risk of CVD, and co-morbid CVD can lead to decreased quality of life, re-hospitalization, and a worse long term prognosis. COPD and CVD are the greatest global disease burden, and they both have immune cell malfunction. Therefore, knowing the common mechanisms of these two diseases could contribute to a comprehensive understanding and appropriate management of them, thereby alleviating the burden of disease. The authors provides an overview of the immune mechanisms of COPD and CVD.

Bimonthly, Established in June 2020
ISSN 2096-8493
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